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ABC

A poem that has five lines that create a picture, feeling, or mood. Lines 1-4 are made up of words or phrases and the first word of each line is in alphabetical order. Line 5 is one sentence and begins with any letter of the alphabet.

Accent

The prominence or emphasis given to a word or syllable. Ex: in the word poetry, the accent is on the first syllable.

Accentual Verse

Lines whose rhythm arises from its stressed syllables rather than from the number of its syllables, or from the length of time devoted to their sounding.

Accentual-Syllabic Verse

Lines whose rhythm arises by the number and alternation of its stressed and unstressed syllables, organized into feet.

Acephalous

A line or verse wihtout its expected initial syllable.

Acrostic Poetry

Poetry in which certain letters, usually the first in each line form a word or message when read in a sequence.

Action Poetry

Verse written for performance by several voices.

Adonic

A Classical Greek and Latin metre, a diameter with dactyl and a spondee.

Aesthetic Movement

A literary belief that art is its own justification and purpose.

Alcaics

A four line Classic Stanza named after Alcaeus, a Greek poet, with a predominantly dactylic metre.

Alexandrine Poetry

A line of poetry that has 12 syllables. The name is said to have come from a Medieval Romance about Alexander the Great that was written in 12-syllale lines.

Allegory

A form of extended metaphor, , in which objects, persons and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning.

Alliteration

Sentences or phrases that consist of repetition of the same or similar sounds at the beginning of words. Ex: Sally Sells Seashells

Allusion

A reference to a historical, mythic, or literary person , place, event or movement.

Ambiguity

A statement with two or more meanings that may seem to exclude one another in the context.

Amphibrach

Greek and Latin metrical foot consisting of unstressed-stressed- unstressed syllables.

Amphimacer

Greek and Latin metrical foot consisting of stressed-unstressed stressed syllables

Amplification

Rhetorical figures of speech that repeat and vary the expression of a thought.

Anachronism

The utilization of an event, a person, an object, language in a time when that event, person, or object was not in existence.

Anacoluthon

An abrupt change or interuption in a sentence, sometimes indicated by a pause, that is afterwards restarted in a syntactically different way.

Anacreontic Verse

Verse which imitates the work of the Greek poet Anacreon who wrote lyrics in praise of wine and women.

Anacrucis

One or two unstressed syllables at the beginning of a line that are unnecessary to the metre.

Anadiplosis

A repetition of the final words of a sentence or line at the beginning of the next.

Anagram

The transposition of letters from a word or phrase to form a new word or phrase

Analepsis

A flashback

Analogue

A semantic or narrative feature in one work said to resemble something in another work, without necessarily implying that a cause and effect relationship exists.

Anapest

A metrical foot of three syllables. Two short syllables followed by one long syllable. Anapest is the opposite of the Dactyl. Ex: "Twas the night before christmas".

Anaphora

The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly in conjunction with climax

Antepenultima

The second last word of the line, or the second last syllable of a word.

Antibacchic

Classical Greek and Latin foot consisting of long,long, and short syllables.

Antiphon

A sacred poem with responses or alternative parts

Antispast

Greek and Latin metrical foot consisting of short, long, long, and short syllables.

Antistrophe

The repitition of the same word or phrase at the end of a successive line or clause.

Antithesis

A figure of speech in which words or phrases with opposite meanings are balanced against eachother. Ex: "one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."

Antonomasia

the substitution of any epithet or phrase with a proper name

Antonymy

Semantic contrasts.

Aphesis

The omission of the initial syllable of a word.

Aphporism

One writer's citation of the another, known author's truism or pithy remark.

Apocope

The omission of the last syllable of a word.

Aporia

an insoluble contradiction or paradox

Aposiopesis

An interuption of an expression withoug a subsequent restarting.

Apostrophe

words that are spoken to a person, object or an abstract idea who is imaginary or absent. Ex: "oh world, I cannot hole thee close enough

Archaism

Using obsolete or archaic words when current alternatives are available.

Archetype

A symbol, usually an image, which recurs often enough in literature to be recognizable as an element of one's literary experience as a whole.

Asclepaid

A classical metrical line made up of a spondee, tow or three chriambs, and one iamb or spondee

Assonance

a repetition of vowel sounds within syllables with changing their consonant sound. Sometimes called vowel rhyme. Ex: fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks

Asyndeton

Lists of words, phrases, or expressions without conjunctions sucha s "and" and "or" to link them.

Atmosphere

The mood or pervasive feeling insinuated by literary work.

Aubade

A medieval poem welcoming or lamenating the arrival of the dawn.

Augustan

Relating to or characteristic of the times of the Roman Emperor Augustus; "the Augustan Age"

Aureate Language

Elaborate, latinate poetic diction employed by certain 15th century English and Scottish poets including: William Dunbar, Robert Henryson.

Bacchic

Greek and Latin Metrical foot consisting of short, long and long syllables.

Ballad

A popular kind of narrative poem that has been adapted for recitation or singing. Or a Story in a song.

Ballad Stanza

Quatrain rhyming abcb and alternating four-stress and three- stress lines.

Ballade

Poetry which has three stanzas of seven, eight or ten lines and a shorter final stanza of four or five. All stanzas end with the same one line refrain.

Bard

One of an ancient Celtic order of minstrel poets who composed and recited verses celebrating the legendary exploits of chieftains and heros.

Bathos

A poets fall in a work of some seriousness, into an unintntionally comic pathos.

Beat Poets

A 1950's San Francisco based group of poets who favoured a free form of expression reflecting their rejection of middle-class values

Bio

A poem written about one's self, personality traits, and ambitions.

Blank Verse

Poetry that is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Most of Shakespeare's [plays are written in blank verse.

Blues

Oral Black American folk or popular melancholic songs of the early twentieth century.

Bob

A one foot line in certain stanzic forms of medieval alliterative poetry.

Bombat

Hyperbolic or widly exaggerating speec, so called aftera kind of cotton stuffing.

Bretan Lay

Brief narrative poems about Arthurian subjects.

Broadside Ballets

Poems printed on one side of a single sheet during the Renaissance period.

Broken Rhyme

Rhyme using more than one word or broken over the line and into the next.

Burden

The choric line or lies that signal the end or the beginning of a stanza in a carol or hymn.

Burlesque

poetry that treats a serious subject ridiculously, humorously, or is simply a trivial story.

Burns Stanza or meter

Six line stanza with the rhyme scheme aaabab.

Cadence

The accent in a metrical foot of verse.

Canon

A person's list of authors or works considered to be "classic".

Canto

The highest part in a piece of choral music. This is usually the Melody.

Canzone

A subdivision of a medieval Italian lyric poem, with five or six stanza and a shorter concluding stanza.

Carol

A hymn or Poem sung, usually a christmas time, by a group where an individual taking the changing stanzas and the group taking the refrain.

Caroline

Of or relating to the life, literature and times of Charles I or Charles II of England.

Carpe Diem

A poem that has a theme of living for today. Carpe Diem is a Latin expression for "seize the day".

Caseura

A natural break or pause occuring somewhere in a line of poetry.

Catachresis

An eccentric, implied metaphor using words in an alien or unusual way. These are sometimes hard to invent but are very effective.

Catalectic

A truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped.

Catralogue Verse

Poems with lists that perform an encyclopedic purpose usually arranged systematically.

Chanson

A medieval lyric or any poem that contains French words.

Chanson De Geste

An epic poem of the 11th to the 14th century that is written in Old French, which details the exploits of a historical or legendary figure.

Chant Royale

A complex French form of poetry that contains five eleven-line stanzas wiith a rhyme scheme of ababccddede.

Chastushka

A type of traditional Russian poetry usually consisting of two, four or six lines. This form is often put to music such as Folksongs as well.

Chiasmus

The repitition of any group of verse elements in reverse order.

Choka

A long Japanese form of poetry with alternanting lines of 5 and 7 syllables, ending with a couplet of seven syllable lines.

Choree

Another term used for the word Torchee

Choriamb

In Greek and Latin poetry, choriamb refers to a prosodic foot of four syllables, of the pattern long-short-short-long.

Cinqku

A poetry form that follows a strict 17 syllable count arranged in five lines of 2-3-4-6-2- syllables.

Cinquain

A stanza with five lines with words of a certain type. Line 1-one word (this is the title), Line 2- 2 words to describe title, Line 3- 3 words that tell an action, Line 4- 4 words that express the feeling, Line 5-5 words wich recalls the title.

Circimlocution

An expression that uses more words than are necessary to convey an idea.

Classicism

Poetry which holds the principles and ideas of beauty that are characteristic of Greek and Roman art, literature and architecture

Clerihew

A very specific kind of short humorous verse that consists of two couplets and having the name of a person in the first line. It is biographical and whimsical, showing the subject from an unusual point of view.

Cliché

An expression that is overused. Ex: "dead as a doornail"

Closed Couplet

two successive lines rhyming aa and containing a grammatically complete, independent statement.

Cockney School of Poetry

A mocking name for London romantic poets. These poets usually shared political and literary views.

Common Measure

A quaintrain featuring alternating four-stress and three-stress iambic lines which has an ABAB rhyming scheme.

Complaint

A satiric attack on social evils.

Conceit

A complicated intellectual poetic image or metaphor that likens one thing to something else seemingly very different.

Concrete Poetry

Verse that emphasizes on visual elements as a large part in its meaning, such as typeface.

Confessional Poetry

A vividy sensational self-revelatory poem in which the poet reveals personal, intimate, sometimes shocking information about himself or herself.

Connotation

words, things or ideas with which a word often keeps company but which it does not actually denote.

Consonance

The repitition of similar consonant sounds, especially at the ends of words.

Content words

The words that carry the content of a sentence, such as nouns, verb, adjectives, and most adverbs.

Convention

A common way of doing something, such as a poetic form, or a common topic.

Corona

A sonnet sequence in which the last line of one sonnet becomes the first line of the next sonnet and the final line in the sequence repeats the first line of the forst sonnet.

Counting-out rhymes

Verse memory aids for children learning how to count, such as "one, two, buckle my shoe."

Couplet

Two successive rhyming lines, usually of the same length. Some couplets rhyme but it is not required that it does so.

Cowboy

Rhymed, metered verse that reflects an intimate knowledge of the way of life, and the community of Western North America. Written by someone who has spent a significant portion of his or her life living in this area.

Crown of Sonnets

A sequence of sonnets, usually addressed to one person, and/or concerned with a single theme. It is a 7-sonnet sequence in which the last line of each sonnet is repeated in the first line of the next. The first and last lines of the sequence are also repetends.

Crystalline

A two line poem, in which euphony is the key factoe. It has a total of 17 syllables.

Dactyl

A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, one long, followed by two short.

Debat

A medieval poem that is a dialogue that takes the shape of a debate on a topic.

Deictic

A word specifying identity to particulars, as names and pronouns do for individual places and persons.

Denotation

What a words points to, names, or refers to, either to realistic things or things in the mind.

Diamante

A form of poem that's prupose is to go from one subject at the top of the diamond to another totally different subject at the bottom of the diamond. It is a seven line poem, shaped in the form of a diamond.

Didactic Verse

A form of verse that exsists so as to teach the readers something, most often moral. It lays out a body of detailed information for the reader with the aim to improve morals.

Diminshed Hexaverse

A poem containg stanzas of 5 lines, 4 lines, 3 lines, then 2 lines and ending with one word.

Dirge

a hymn or song of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person.

Dissonance

A combination of tones that sounds harsh and in need of resolution.

Distich

Two lines related to one another.

Dithyramb

A Greek lyric choral hymn in honour of the Greek God of wine, Dionysius

Dizain

A stanza or poem with ten lines with the rhyme scheme ABABBCCDCD.

Doditsu

A Japanese fixed folk song form that is often about love or humor. It has 26 syllables with four lines consisting of 7,7,7, 5 syllables.

Doggerel

Verse that is characterizes by cliches, incomprehensibility, and an irregular metre.

Double Dactyl

A form of light verse consisting of two quatrains, each pair with three double-dactyl lines.

Dramatic Monologue

A type of poem developed during the Victorian period derived from theatre that represents itself as a speech made by one

Dramatic Verse

Any drama written as verse to be spoken. This is also referred to as poetic drama.

Dream Vision

A poet's relation of how he fell asleep and had an often allegorical dream.

Ecologue

A brief desriptive poem, set in a rural place or pastoral life that disusses urban, court, political, or social issues.

Ekphrasis

The graphic, often dramatic description of a visual work of art.

Elegiac Stanza

A quatrain in iambic pentameter with abab rhyme scheme.

Elegy

A Greek or Lain form of poem that laments the death of a person. A sad and thoughtful poem of mourning about the death of an individual.

Elision

Omission of a consonant usually to achieve a metricl effect.

Ellipsis

The omission of a word or phrase necessary for a complete syntactical construction but not necessary for understanding.

Enclosed rhyme

A poem that has the rhyme scheme of "abba"

End-Stopped

A verse or line that has a natural pause at the end, such as a dash, colon, or a period.

Enjambment

The continuation of a complete idea from one line or couplet of a poem to the next line or couplet without a pause.

Envoy

The brief stanza that ends a poem such as a ballade or the sestina.

Epic

An extensive serious narrative poem with a heroic or superhuman protagonist engaged in an action of great significance in a vast setting.

Epic Simile

An extended simile elaborated in great detial.

Epigram

A short witty and ironic poem usually written as a brief couplet or quatrain.

Epigraph

A brief quotation that is taken from another literary work, that is at the start of a poem under the title.

Epistle

A specially long, formal letter, addressed to someone in particular often personal and occasion, and sometimes dated, with a location.

Epistrophe

Successice phrases, clauses, or lines that repeat the same word or words at their ends.

Epitaph

A commemorative inscription on a tomb or mortuary monument written to praise the deceased.

Epithalamion

A song or poem written to honor and commemorate a marriage ceremony.

Epitrite

A Greek and Latin mertrical foot consisting of short, long, long, and long syllales in any order.

Epizenxis

The repitition of a words several times without connectives.

Epode

a lyric poem sung by the chorus in a Greek tragedy

Epulaeryu

A poem about delicious food. It contains seven lines with 33 syllables.

Epyllion

A short narative poem with a romantic or mythological theme.

Euphony

A pleasing harmony of sounds.

Exemplum

A brief story used to make a point in an argument or to illustrate a moral truth.

Eye-Rhyme

words whose spellings would lead one to think that they rhymed. ex: love, move, prove..

Fabliau

A medieval verse tale characterized by comic, ribald treatment of themes drawn from life.

Feminine ending or rhyme

A muti-syllable rhyme that ends with one or more unstressed syllables.

Fibonacci

The number of syllables in each line that must equal the sum of the syllables in the two previous lines.

Figure of Speech

A literary device used in which wods or sounds are arranged in a particular way to achieve a particular effect. The categories for these are things such as simile, metaphor, onomatopeia etc.

Flyting

A poem of invective by two speakers trying to out-humiliate one another

Folk Song

A popular song of the common people of a country or region that reflects their life style, often anonymus and passed by word-of- mouth.

Foot

Two or more syllables that together make the smallest unit of rhythm in a poem.

Formula

An often repeated phrase, sometimes half- a line long and metrically distinctive.

Found Poem

An unintentional poem discovered in a nonpoetic context such as a conversation, news story, or advertisement.

Free Verse

A term describing poetry written in either rhyme or unrhymed lines that have no set fixed metrical pattern.

Georgic Poems

Poems that characterize the life of a farmer

Ghazal

A short Eastern verse poem consisting of successive couplets whose lines all end with the same refrain phrase. The last couplet includes the name of the poet.

Glyconic

A Greek and Roman metre that consists of a spondee, a choriamb, and an iamb.

Gnomic Verse

The work of certain sixth and seventh centuries BC Greek poets. Verse containing gnomes, maxims and aphorisms.

Graveyard School

poets from the 18th century who penned gloomy poems on death.

Grook

A form of short aphoristic poem characterized by irony, paradox, brevity, precise use of language, and sophisticated rhymes.

Haiku

A Japanese poem composed of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables. These poems are usually about some form of nature.

Hemistich

A hemistich is a half-line of verse, followed and preceded by a caesura, that makes up a single overall prosodic or verse unit.

Hendecasyllabic

A Classical Greek and Latin poem containing 11 syllables. A spondee, a Choriamb, and two iambs.

Hendiadys

A figure of speech in which a pair of nouns linked by "and" that are substituted for an adjective-noun pair.

Heptmater

a measure of seven feet.

Heroic Couplet

A traditional form of English poetry, commonly used for epic and narrative poetry. It refers to poems constructed from a sequence of rhyming pairs of iambic pentameter lines.

Hexameter

A six-foot part or measure

Homonym

A word that has the same spelling as another, but has a different meaning or origin. A homonym can also have a different spelling but a different sound.

Horatian Ode

A short lyric poem that is written in two or four line stanzas, each with the same metrical pattern. These are often addressed to a friend and deal with friendship, love and the practice of poetry.

Hovering Stress

When the stress is equally distributed over two adjacent syllables.

Hudibrastic poetry

A mock-heroic humorous poem written in octosyllabic couplets

Hymn

A poem praising God or other divine being or place, often sung.

Hyperbaton

Transposition of the normal order of words.

Hyperbole

A figure of speech that uses exaggeration beyond reasonable credence.

Hypercatalectic

A line of poetry possessing an extra syllable after the last, normal foot of the meter.

Hypermetric

A verse with one or more syllables than the metre calls for.

Iamb

A metrical foot consisting of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented one.

Iambic Pentameter

A meter in poetry that is one short syllable followed by a long one five sets in a row.

Iambic Trimeter

A Latin and Classical Greek metre that has three iambic feet.

Idiom

A language familiar to a group of people.

Idyll

Poetry that depicts a peaceful, idealized country scene or a long poem telling a story about heroes of a bye gone age.

Image

An expression that describes a literal sensation either by seeing, touching, hearing, feeling or tasting.

Imagism

A movement of early 20th century poets aimed at clarity of expression through the use of precise visual images.

In Memoriam Stanza

A quatrain stanza with the rhyme scheme "abba".

Internal Rhyme

Rhyme that occurs within a line.

Ionic

A Classical Greek and Latin double foot that consists of two unstressed syllables and two stressed syllables, wither majore or ionic

Ireegular Ode

A poem that is characterized by irregularity of verse and structure and lack of coorespondence between the parts.

Irony

Tthe use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning

Isochronous Metre

When all the stressed syllables are seperated in isochronous metre by equal duration of time no matter how many slacks or unstressed syllables occur between them.

Isocolon

A line or lines that consists of clauses that are of equal length.

Italian Sonnet

A sonnet that consists of an octave with the rhyming pattern "abbaabba" followed by six lins with the rhyme pattern of "cdecde" or "cdcdcd".

Kenning

A compond word in Old English poery that replaces the usual name for something.

Kimo

A post Haiku poetic form that consists of three lines of 10,7, and 6 syllables.

Kyrielle

A middle French verse that is written in rhyming couplets or quatrains. It uses the phrase "Lord have mercy" or a variant on it.

Lanterne

A form of poem that has 11 syllables. One in the first line, two in the second, three in the third line, four in the fourth and one in the fifth line that is related to the first word of the poem.

Lay

A lay is a long narrative poem that was sung by medieval minstrels.

Light Poetry

This is also called light verse. It is poetry such as lymrics and nonsense poems that are brief and attempt to be humorous. It often contains puns and heavy alliteration.

Light Verse

This is also called light poetry. It is poetry such as lymrics and nonsense poems that are brief and attempt to be humorous. It often contains puns and heavy alliteration.

Limerick

A short poem that is humorous and sometimes vulgar. It contains five anapestic lines. The rhyme scheme "AABBA"

List

A poem that is made up of items or events. It does not have to rhyme and can be of any length.

Litotes

A figure of speech that is an understatement meant as a positive by negating its opposite. Ex: not a bad idea.

Little Willie

A comic form of poetry, often a quatrain rhyming aabb. It is identified by its content, the gruesome fate of "Little Willy" or a comparable figure.

Liverpool Poets

A group of poets in the 1960's from the west-England city of Liverpool. Included in this group is Adrian Henri, Roger McGough and Brian Patten.

Luc-Bat

A form of Vietmanese poetry that is made of syllbaic couplets, that alternates six and eight syllables, where the first eight syllable lines rhymes with the next six lines.

Lyric

A short poem in which the speaker expresses personal feelings and thoughts and pften addressed to the reader.

Macaronic Verse

A form of poetry that puts together phrases or expressions in more than one language.

Madrigal

A type of Italian poetry that is short or a part song that is suitable for singing by three or more voices, usually unaccompained. This was extremely popular in the early 16th century.

Maker

An early renaissance and medieval term for "poet" .

Masculine ending or rhyme

A rhyme that occurs in the last stressed syllable. Ex: cat/hat.

McWhirtle

A light verse form of poetry similar to that of a double dactyl. They share the same form as double dactyl but without the strict requirements, which makes them easier to write.

Memoriam Stanza

Named after the pattern used by Lord Tennyson. A quatriain in iambic tetrameter with a rhyme scheme "ABBA".

Metaphor

An implied comparison between two things that have completely different meanings, usually by saying one thing is another, or by using a more descriptive word in place of the word expected.

Metaphysical Poets

A loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, including John Donne and his imitators, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns.

Meter

The arragement of a line of poetry either by the number of syllables and the rhythm of stressed syllables.

Metonymy

Greek meaning "name change". A form of metaphor in which a word normally associated with something is substituted for the term usually naming the thing.

Metre

The rhythm of a poem. There are four kinds, accentual, syllabic, accentual-syllabic, and quantitative.

Miltonic Sonnet

This type of sonnet is close to the petrarchan sonnet but does not divide.

Mock Epic

A poem that treats a minor subject seriously by using the devices of an epic.

Mock Heroic

Parodies that mock common Romantic or modern stereotypes of heroes.

Molossus

A Greek and Latin metrical foot that consists of long, long, and long syllables.

Monometrer

One foot, a single foot. Also known as monopody

Monorhyme

A poem that has an identical rhyme on every line, making the rhyme scheme "AAAAA.".

Motif

An action or image in a literary work that is shared by other works and is sometimes thought to belong to a collective unconsciousness.

Muses

Any of the nine daughters of Mnemosyne and Zeus in Greek mythology, each of whom presided over a different science or art.

Naga-Uta

A traditional Japanese form of indeterminate length which accompanies the kabuki theater.

Name

This is poetry that tells about a word. It uses the letters of the word for the first letter of each line in the poem.

Narrative

A poem that tells a story, either about an act, event person, place or thing.

Neoclassicism

A "new classicism" A revival of classical Greek and Roman forms in art, music, and literature of the early 18th century.

Nonet

Has nine lines. It can be on any subject and doesn't have to rhyme. The first line has 9 syllables, the second has 8 syllables and it continues to countdown till the last line has one syllable.

Objectification

A figure of speech in the poet uses an abstract object and treats it as if it were a physical thing or place.

Occasional Poem

A poem that describes or comments on a particular occasion or event.

Occupatio

When a writer explains that he/she will not have time to say something or space to write something but goes on to say it anyway.

Octameter

A verse that contains eight feet.

Octave

An eight line stanza or poem. There are many types: "ABABBCBA", "ABBACDDC", "ABABABCC", or "ABAAABAB".

Octosyllabic

having eight syllables

Ode

A long lyric poem of a serious or meditative nature that has a complex stanza structure.

Onomatopoeia

A word that imitates a sound. Ex. "buzz", "beep", or "moo".

Ottava Rima

An Italian Stanza that has eight 11-syllable lines. Has the rhyme scheme "ABABABCC"

Overstatement

An exaggeration in poetry to create an effect.

Oxymoron

An expression that is two words, usually an adjective- noun, or an adverb-adjective.

Paeon

A Greek and Latin metrical foot that consists of three short syllables and one long syllable.

Palindromes

A statement that reads the same in both directions. Ex: man, a plan, a canal, Panama!

Palinode

A recantation in an ode or song, meaning the poet retracts what the poet wrote in the previous poem.

Panegyric

A poem that greatly praises someone or something.

Pantoum

A rare form of French verse consisting of four quatrains that repeats entire lines in a strict pattern.

Paradox

A self-contradicting statement. Ex: "I always lie".

Paralipsis

A thought where less information is given than appears to be called for by the circumstances.

Parallelism

Two or more phrases or expressions that share traits, whether lexical, figurative, metrical, or grammatical. It can also take the form of a list.

Parataxis

The use of clauses without conjunctions, only by means of associations that are implied, not stated.

Parody

A non-complimentary composition that imitates someone in a humorous way.

Paronomasia

Like a pun, a play of words by yoking similar-sounding words.

Pastiche

A postmodern playwriting technique that makes a work from excerpts of other writers or from passages that are clearly recognized as imitations of others.

Pastoral

A poem that depicts rural life in a romanticized, peaceful manner.

Pathetic Fallacy

An expression used by John Ruskin that endows inanimate things with human feelings.

Pattern Poetry

A form of poetry that creates the shape of its subject typographically on the page.

PEN

The acronym for the Association, Poets, Playwrights, Editors Essayists, and Novelists.

Pentameter

Also called Pentapody, it is a five- part foot, five feet.

Penultimate Syllable

The next to last syllable of a word.

Periphrasis

Using a word or phrase to describe something that already has a term to describe it.

Persona

Character. The actors portrayal of someone in a play.

Personification

A form of poetry in which human characteristics are given to something non-human. This gives the poet a way to give the world life and emotion.

Petrarchan Sonnet

A 14 line sonnet containing an octave rhyme of "ABBAABBA" followed by a sestet of "CDDCEE" or "CDECDE".

Pherecratean

A Classical Greek and Latin metrical pattern that contains an iamb or a trochee, a dactyl, ad a trochee or a spondee.

Phonemic Alphabet

All the sounds that make up spoken English.

Pindaric Ode

A poem consisting of two or more lines repeated as a unit followed by an antistrophe and concluding with a summary line that is in a different meter.

Poem

A composition written in metrical feet forming rhythmical lines as Defined by Samuel Johnson.

Poesy

Poems, or the art of making poems.

Poet Laureate

An award, honor or prize given to a poet by a particular group or region.

Poetaster

A contemptuous name often applied to bad or inferior poets.

Poetic Diction

Diction that differs significantly from common speech.

Poetic License

Used by a writer or artist to heighten the effect of their work.

Poetry

A form of speech or writing that uses an imaginative awareness of experience through sound, meaning, and rhythmic language to arouse an emotional response.

Poets Corner

A place in the south transept of Westmnster Abbey, London that holds monuments and graves for great poets such as Chaucer, Spencer, Dryden, Ben Jonson, Gray, Tennyson, Browning, and other English poets.

Poluters Measure

Couplets in which a fourteen-syllable line rhymes with a twelve-syllable line.

Polyptoton

Repition of a word in different forms. Ex: My own heart's heart.

Polysyndeton

A figure of speech in which successive clauses or phrases are linked by one or more conjunctions.

Portmanteau Word

Combining two exsisting words, to make a new one as used by Lweis Carroll.

Proceleus Maticus

A Classical Greek and Latin foot having four short syllables.

Prose poem

An open form poem that has other traits of poetry and is, from its context associated with poems.

Prosody

Reading with appropriate intonation and rhythm.

Prosopopoeia

When an imaginary or absent person is represented as speaking or acting.

Prothalamion

A song or poem in celebration of marriage.

Pun

A humorous play on words.

Pure Poetry

Poetry that is meant for pleasure not to instruct the reader.

Purple Passage

A passage in a poem that stands out because of its ornate and flowery language.

Pyrrhic

A metrical foot consisting of two unaccented syllables.

Pythiambic

A Classical Greek and Latin metrical form that has dactylic hexameter and iamic trimaeter couplets.

Quadruplet

A four-syllable foot.

Quantitative Metre

Lines whose rhythm depends on the duration of time a line takes to utter. The duration depends on if the syllable is short or long.

Quatern

A French form consisting of 16 lines composed in four quatrains. It has a refrain that is in a different place in each quatrain.

Quatrain

A four line stanza that rhymes.

Quintain

A five line stanza form that is written in iambic pentameter with a rhyme scheme "ABABA".

Quintella

A Spanish form of poetry with eight syllable lines. The rhyme scheme is usually either "AABBA", or "ABBAA".

Refrain

A phrase, line or group of words in which one or more lines are repeated before or after the stanzas of the poem.

Reverdie

A medieval song that celebrates the coming of spring.

Rhetorical Question

When a poet asks a question without expecting an answer because the poet already implies the answer and the reader infers.

Rhopalic Verse

Poems that start with short lines and progressively get longer and longer.

Rhyme

The occurance of the same or similar sounds of two or more lines usually the final sounds.

Rhyme Royal

A type of poetry that has seven ten-syllable lines that rhyme ABABBCC.

Rhythm

The basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music.

Rictameter

A nine line poetry form. The first and last lines are in the same syllable count. The nine lines go as follows: line 1- syllables, line 2- 4 syllables, line 3- 6 syllables, line 4- 8 syllables, line 5- 10 syllables, line 6- 8 syllables, line 7- 6 syllables, line 8- 4 syllables, and line 9- 2 syllables.

Rime Couee

A stanza where a closing short line rhymes with a previous short line and is seperated from it by its longer lines. This is also called tail rhyme.

Romance

A long narrative poem in French that is about courtly and secret love.

Romanticism

An art style in the late 18th century and early 19th century about nature and love that emphasizes the personal, emotional and dramatic through the use of exotic, literary or historical subject . matter.

Rondeau

A lyrical poem consisting of between ten and fifteen lines, having only two rhymes and with the opening words used twice as an unrhyming refrain a the end of the second and third stanzas.

Rondeau Redouble

The French translation of a double rondeau. It has 25 lines and features a four line refrain that forms the first quatrain.

Rondel

Poetic form containing eleven to fourteen lines having the first two lines repeat in the middle and at the end and have only two rhymes.

Roundelay

A poem or song with a regularly recurrring refrain

Sapphic Stanza

A poetic form that has four lines.

Scansion

The anaylasis of a poet's metre by dividing it into metreical feet and identifying its rhythm by encoding stressed syllables and unstressed syllables.

Scheme

A form of figure of speech that varies the order and sound of words.

Scop

The name given to Old English poet singers.

Senryu

A short Japanese form or poetry, like a haiku in structure and treats humans beings rather than nature usually in a humorous or satiric way.

Septet

A seven-line stanza.

Sestet

A six-line stanza.

Sestina

A highlt structured poem that has six six-line stanzas and a three line envoy having the words ending the lines of the first stanza

Sextain

A poem with six lines.

Shakespearean Sonnet

A 14 line sonnet that has three quatrains of "ABAB CDCD EFEF" concluding with a couplet.

Shape

Poetry that is written in the shape or form of an object. These poems do not have to take the form of the object it describes.

Sick Verse

Poetry which portrays an unhealthy, black-humoured preoccupation with subjects such as disease and death.

Sijo

A Classical Korean form of poetry consisting of three lines.

Silent Stress

A pause or musical rest that is noticeable and has all the value of a beat in highly rhythmic verse.

Simile

An expression that makes a comparison with "like", "as" or "than".

Singlet

A one-syllable foot.

Skeltonic Verse

Invented by John Skelton (1460-1529). It is a simple short poem with lines in variable length stanzas that reuses a small number of rhymes.

Slack

Unstressed syllable.

Sonnet

There are two meanings. The Renaissance meaning is a brief song or lyric of indeterminate rhyme scheme. It is also a 14-line poem.

Spasmodic School

Name given to late Romantic, early Victorian minor poets including Philips, James Bailey, Sydney Dobell, and Alexander Smith.

Spenserian Stanza

A nine-line stanza, with the first eight lines in iambic pentameter and the last line in iambic hexameter.

Spondee

A metrical foot of two long (stressed) syllables.

Sprung Rhythm

A poetic rhythm that imitates the rhythm of speech, in which each foot has one stressed syllable.

Stanza

A fixed number of lines that together form one of the divisions of a poem often sharing the same rhyme scheme. Stanzas are usually the same length.

Stichomythia

In ancient Greek it is a dialouge that is in alternate verses, meaning that the characters alternate by saying one line each.

Stress

The relative prominence of a syllable or musical note. The language determines how a syllable is stressed.

Strophe

A section of Greek ode sung when the chorus turns from one side of the otchestra to the other side.

Sublime

The main characteristic of great poetry.

Syllable

A unit of language spoken.

Syllbaic Verse

Lines whose rhythm arises by the certain number of syllable by which the poet keeps a pattern.

Symbol

Something that manifests or signifies a thing, or something that is abstract, otherwordly, or numinous.

Symbolist Movement

A movement of the late 19 century by French writers whose verse dealt with transcendental phenomena or that had actions or images whose meaning was associative rather than referential.

Synaeresis, Synalocpha

The contraction of two syllables into one.

Syncope

The ellision of an ustressed syllable to keep to a strict accentual- syllabic metre.

Synecdoche

A figure of speech in which there is a metaphorical or rhetorical substitution of a whole part for a part.

Synesthesia

The blending of different senses when describing something.

Syzygy

When a poet uses different types of feet in the same verse.

Tail-Rhyme

A French form of poetry consisting of two rhymes. First a rhyming couplet of normally eight syllables then a third and shorter line. Next, another couplet that rhymes with the first one and the sixth, shorter line rhymes with the third line. The rhyme scheme is "AABBCCB".

Tanka

A Japanese poem that contains five lines with five, seven, five, seven, and seven syllables.

Tautology

A line that is redundant in itself. Ex: "new innovation".

Telestich

A poem in which the last letters of verse lines spell outa name.

Tercet

A group of three lines.

Terezanelle

A poetic form that has a combination of the villanelle and the terza

Terza Rima

An Italian form consisting of three lines.

Terzain

A stanza that has three lines.

Tetracyts

A form of poetry that has at least 5 lines of 1,2,3,4, and 10 syllables.

Tetrameter

A measure made up of four feet.

Than-Bauk

A poetic form consisting of three lines of four syllables each.

Theme

The prevailing idea in a poem but not necessarily stated.

Tone

The poet's attitude to the poem's subject as the reader interprets it.

Tornada

A three line envoy that includes the rhymes of all the preceeding stanzas.

Travesty

A work that treats a serious subject frivorously.

Tribrach

The Greek and Latin metrical foot that consists of short, short and short syllables.

Trimeter

A triple foot. A three feet measure.

Triolet

A French verse that has eight lines with the rhyme scheme is "ABaAabAB".

Triplet

A three syllable foot with a single rhyme.

Trochee

A metrical foot that consists of an accented syllable followed by an unaccented syllable.

Trope

A figure of speech that varies the meaning of a word or passage.

Tyburn

A six line poem that contains 2,2,2,2,9,9 syllables. The first four lines are all descriptive words and the last two lines rhyme.

Vers de Societe

Sophisticated light verse poetry that is appealing to the gentry.

Verse

The metrical line of poetry or poetry in general.

Verse Paragraph

A group of verses that make up a unit.

Versification

A metrical adaptation of something.

Victorian

Verse written from 1837 and 1903 during the reign of Victoria.

Villanelle

A Italian vese of 19 lines consisting of tercets, and a final quatrain on two rhymes.

Virelay

A medieval French form of poetry that consists of short lines in stanzas with only two rhymes.

Voiced and unvoiced

Voiced- when consonants are voiced and the vocal cords move. Unvoiced- when consonants are voiced and the vocal cords remain still.

Wheel

An allternative rhyming quatrain that has four-stress lines.